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You can use all of the greetings in Vocabulary 1 at any time of the day. The formal way to say Hello is Xin chao. The word Xin added at the beginning of the sentence is used to express politeness. However, it is more common to greet someone by addressing them with one of the other phrases given in Vocabulary 1: chao ng to an older man, chao ba to an older woman, chao anh to a somewhat older/similarly-aged man, chao chi to a somewhat older/similarly-aged woman or chao chau to a child. You can make these sentences more polite by using xin at the beginning, such as Xin chao ng, Xin chao ba and so on.

It might be surprising for an English speaker to find out that these terms are based on kinship terms and also serve as personal pronouns (equivalent to you in English).

Kinship terms
ng grandfather
ba grandmother
anh elder brother
chi elder sister
em younger sibling
chau grandson/granddaughter

To say goodbye you can also use chao, with or without a term of address. If the context is ambiguous, you can distinguish goodbye from hello by adding further information such as See you again! For example, Chao, hen gp lai (to anyone), or Chao chi, hen gp lai (to a somewhat older/similarly-aged woman) and so on.